Clark, E. V. (1978a). Awareness of
language: Some evidence from what children say and do. In R. J. A.
Sinclair & W. Levelt (Eds.), The child’s conception of language.
Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Clark, E. V. (1978b). Discovering what words
can do. In W. J. D. Farkas & K. Todrys (Eds.), Papers from the
parasession on the lexicon. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Soci-ety.
Clark, E. (1979). Building a vocabulary: Words for objects, actions
and relations. In P. Fletcher & M. Garman (Eds.), Language
acquisition: Studies in first language development. New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Clark, E. V. (1982a). Language change
during language acquisition. In M. E. Lamb & A. L. Brown (Eds.),
Advances in child development: Vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Clark, E. V. (1982b). The young word maker: A
case study of innovation in the child’s lexicon. In E. Wanner & L. R.
Gleitman (Eds.), Language acquisition: The state of the art.
Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
In accordance with TalkBank rules, any use of data from this corpus
must be accompanied by at least one of the above references.
This subdirectory contains files from a short-term longitudinal study
conducted by Eve Clark during 1976 two-year-old child. The transcripts
pay close attention to repetitions, hesitations, and retracings.
Shem was seen on a nearly weekly basis by an observer (Cindy) who became
a friend of the family over the course of the year’s recording. The
recordings were made at Shem’s home, except on a few occasions when the
parents made the recording because either Cindy or they were away on
vacation so Shem would have missed more than one session. The child’s
name, his home address, his sister’s name, the names of his parents, and
the observ-er’s name have been changed to preserve their
confidentiality. The names of nearby places and institutions remain
Shem was from a middle- to upper-middle-class professional family in the
Palo Alto area. He was an only child until just after the recordings
began when his first sister, Ana, was born. He attended a local day care
center (Little Kids’ Place) in the mornings, and oc-casionally went
there for a short time in the afternoon. Most of the recording sessions
took place at his home. Shem’s age and the date (month and day) is noted
at the top of each tran-script. His date of birth was February 5, 1974.
For convenience, the ages for each session are summarized here:
A few sessions are split into two parts if they lasted longer than
usual. Most sessions lasted an hour.
Shem’s pronunciation at the beginning of the recording period was often
unclear, and he frequently made more than one attempt to get himself
understood. In the transcripts, all repairs are noted, but Shem’s
pronunciation has been largely normalized for representation in English
orthography, except where his meaning remained unclear, or his
pronunciation was critical to the overall form of an interchange.
Typical features were voicing of intervo-calic voiceless stops (whether
or not at word boundaries); omission of voiced final stops; voicing of
voiceless initial stops; substitutions among fricatives; great
variation in vowel quality; extensive reliance on schwa or syllabic /n/
for function words (the syllabic /n/ was typically, but not always a
locative preposition); simplification of clusters with loss of
post-consonantal /l/ and /r/; initial /l/ often /y/; initial /s/ often
/d ~ t/; final /s/ often /t/; final voiced stops often /n/ (e.g., birn/
/for “bird,” /wen/ for “red,” /bun/ or /bung/ for “bug”);
voiceless final stops often replaced by glottal stops (especially /t/,
and often /k/); and occasional homorganic voiceless stops as releases
to final nasals (e.g., /lawnt/ for “lawn”).
Shem regularly produced the definite article as “duh”. In order to
improve the readability and analyzability of the transcript, all cases
of “duh” were changed to conventional “the.”
Intonation is indicated by punctuation, with a period marking a terminal
fall, a question mark marking interrogative rise, an exclamation mark
indicating emphatic tone, and a com-ma indicating continuing or listing
contour (slight pause, with sustained level tone, or slight falling but
nonterminal tone). The bulk of the transcription is in English
orthography for ease of reading, but a few persistent forms are left
with glosses more or less in the form Shem produced them. On a few
tapes, background conversations (e.g., on the telephone) are omitted
from the final transcription.
The data collection was supported by an NSF grant (BNS 75-17126) to E.