Department of Linguistics
University of York
Cécile De Cat
Department of Linguistics
University of Leeds
| Participants: || 3 |
| Type of Study: || naturalistic |
| Location: || France, Belgium, Canada |
| Media type: || audio |
| DOI: || doi:10.21415/T5NK63 |
Link to media folder
Publications using these data should cite at least one of the following articles:
De Cat, C. & B. Plunkett (2002). QU’ est ce qu’i (l) dit, celui+Là?:
notes méthodologiques sur la transcription d’un corpus francophone.
Romanistische Korpuslinguistik: Korpora und gesprochene Sprache /
Romance Corpus Linguistics: Corpora and Spoken Language. Tübingen: Narr.
Plunkett, B. (2002). Null Subjects in child French interrogatives: A
view from the York Corpus. Romanistische Korpuslinguistik: Korpora
und gesprochene Sprache / Romance corpus linguistics: Corpora and spoken
In accordance with TalkBank rules, any use of data from this corpus must be accompanied by at least one of the above references.
Additional studies that make use of the York corpus include:
De Cat, C. (2002). Dislocations in French(Unpublished doctoral
dissertation). University of York.
De Cat, C. (2004). Apparent non-nominative subjects in L1 French. In
Paradis, J. & Prévost, P. (eds.) The acquisition of French in
different contexts: Focus on functional categories (pp. 51-88).
Amsterdam / Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Plunkett, B. (2003). Null Subjects and the Setting of Subject
Agreement Parameters in Child French. In Pérez-Leroux, A. T. & Roberge,
Y. (eds.): Romance Linguistics Theory and Acquisition (pp.
351-366). Amsterdam / Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Plunkett, B. (2000). The Emergence of Periphrastic Questions in Child
French. In Perkins M. & Howard S. (eds) New Directions in Language
Development and Disorders (pp. 105-117). New York: Plenum
Plunkett, B. (1999). Targeting Complex Structure: Periphrastic
Questions in Child French. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Language Development(pp. 764-775).
Plunkett, B. & De Cat, C. (2001). Root Specifiers and Null Subjects
Revisited. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on
Language Development (pp. 611-622).
Plunkett, B. (2004). Early Peripheries in the Absence of C. In Adger,
D., De Cat, C., & Tsoulas G.(eds) Peripheries (pp. 383-405).
This directory contains transcripts from a study of three children
acquiring French that were collected and compiled during an project
entitled “The Syntactic Acquisition of Wh-Questions in French: a
cross-dialectal comparison” run from the University of York (UK). Data collection began in early 1997.
The project involved an 18-month study of three children, each one a
speaker of a different dialect of French. The children were taped
fortnightly for approximately half an hour in a familiar environment.
The sessions were videotaped and separately audio-recorded using Sony
professional cassette recorders. The three fieldworkers collecting the
data were all native speakers of French. Initial transcriptions were in
most cases done by these investigators on the basis of the audiotape,
then checked against the video and coded by the research assistant on
the project Cécile De Cat, a native speaker of Belgian French. The names
used for the target children in these corpora are all pseudonyms. The
data are in French, without English glosses. Comments are in English.
Researchers who require more information as well as any using data
from the York corpus are asked to contact Bernadette Plunkett by email
and to send her copies of any research papers using this data. The
conventions used in this corpus are under constant re-evaluation; users
with comments or anyone who notices inconsistent application of the
conventions listed below are also asked to contact her with details. The
corpus has recently been digitised and the digital sound stream has been
used to double check the consistency of certain aspects of
transcription, but since permission for public release of the audio
corpus was not originally sought from participants only the transcripts
have been donated.
The Belgium corpus contains 36 chat files, Liea001.cha-Liea036 which
correspond to the transcripts of the Belgian child (Léa, Liège) from
2;8.22 to 4;3.21. The Canada corpus contains 36 chat files
Mona001.cha-Mona037 which correspond to the transcripts of the Canadian
child (Max, Montréal) from 1;9.19 to 3;2.23. The France corpus contains
35 chat files Para001.cha-Para035 which correspond to the transcripts of
the French child (Anne, Paris) from 1;10.12 to 3;5.4. Other children
were also present during some recording sessions. Only two of them have
a significant presence, however. They are Pol (born on 21-AUG-1992),
who is Max's brother, and Lore (born on 6-MAR-1995), who was at the same
childminder’s as Anne. The sessions during which they were present are
represented in a table in the Canadian and French sections respectively,
together with a calculation of their age in those sessions.
Warnings and Codes
The following are some specific warnings regarding these transcriptions.
- Overlaps were not taken into account in the transcription. Overlapping utterances were transcribed in sequence. A comment was added when the order was impossible to determine.Hesitations and retracing were extensively transcribed for the children only. Only some cases were taken into account in the adult data.
- A rough phonetic transcription of particular words is given where this information seemed particularly relevant (for instance when the string produced by the child had to be interpreted to a greater extent than usual) or where no interpretation was found for the string in question. The transcription used in these cases is the version of UNIBET adapted for French by Champaud as detailed elsehere in this manual. The absence of a phonetic transcription should not be taken to mean that the pronunciation of the word or string was completely adult-like.
- The pronunciation of the feminine ending (of past participles etc.) is in many cases impossible to perceive. However, agreement was transcribed in most cases with the feminine (and where appropriate plural) endings required by the syntax unless there was some clear indication that no agreement had taken place. Such silent agreement morphemes should thus not be taken to indicate anything about the child’s grammar.
- Liaison is not transcribed in the adults. Where the presence or absence of liaison was considered particularly surprising this has been mentioned but in general it is not possible to tell anything about liaison from the transcription.
- It is often difficult to segment speech into distinct utterances. Where there is doubt or where separation into multiple utterances would facilitate the counting of distinct utterance types, the number of utterances has always been maximised.
- Where the child is addressed but does not does not respond verbally, utterances consisting solely of 0 have been used. Special attention should be paid to exclude these when calculating MLU.
- [+ imit] indicates an apparent verbatim repetition of an adult utterance by a child or of a child utterance by an adult.
- [+ pimit] usually indicates a possible child attempt at a repetition of an adult utterance but in which some words have been omitted or changed.
- [%sch: xxxx] the "xxxx" correspond to the adult equivalent of a child expression.
- [%sdi: xxxx] the "xxxx" correspond to the standard French equivalent of a dialectal expression.
- [%sxx: xxxx] the "xxxx" is used to give the standard French equivalent of an expression where the transcriber was not sure if the nature of the utterance should be considered a child form or a dialectal form or where the non-standard form appears in all three dialects studied.
- @d indicates that the preceding word is a dialectal word or word whose usage in this context is dialectal.
- @m most of these special words are 'motherese'.
In some instances, the child utters a vowel in between [e] and [a] as
a word. When it appears in front of a noun, we interpret this vowel as
the precursor of le / la, i.e. not yet a real determiner, but not a
missing determiner either. When used before a verb it is most likely to
represent a pronoun (either subject or object). The transcription of
such elements using an 'e' on its own should not be confused with the
/e/ which appears in any phonological transcription preceded by the %pho
symbol; in that case ‘e’ represents a half close front vowel.
3.7. Missing and uninterpretable elements
0 Used in the York corpora only where the identity of a missing word is uncertain.
0 vient. [ = il vient or elle vient]
(xx) Used where the missing word is clearly identifiable the word itself appears inside parentheses.
(tu) veux. [ where the interpretation is clearly not je veux]
(xx_xx) Used to indicate material which has been syntactically elided rather than erroneously omitted, in order to aid understanding especially when utterances found by syntactic searches may be looked at out of context.
(tu_veux_acheter) une poupée?
- bébête : little animal, often a creepy-crawly
- bobo(s) : little wound or scratch, bruise
- bonhommes : little men figures or puppets
- chienchien : dog
- doudou / doudoune : comfort blanket
- doudouces : caresses, strokes
- fifille : little girl
- joujou : (faire joujou) play
- minou : cat
- moumousse : foam
- moumouche : little fly
- nounours : teddy bear
- pèpète / pépette : backside
- pissou : wee
- picotage : cutting paper with a needle along the lines of a drawing
- prout : fart
- tatie : auntie
- toutou : dog
- venventre : tummy
- zizi : willy
Onomatopoeia (marked @o)
- aïe : pain or exclamation
- aha : exclamation
- aouh : pain
- aoutch : pain
- atchoum : sneeze
- bam : banging against something
- bèèè(k)/bek/beek : disgust (cf ‘yuk(ky)’ in English)
- beuh : disgust
- boing : when something has banged against something else
- boum : when something has fallen or banged against something
- broum : noise of a motor
- cataclop : noise of the horse's hooves
- chut : asking for silence
- clac : slapping or shutting noise
- clop : reduction of 'cataclop'
- cocorico : sound that cockerels make
- coin : sound that ducks make
- couac : sound that ducks make
- cuicui : bird song
- doing : jumping movement
- eeh : protestation
- glou(glou) : liquid noise
- grrr : menace, threat
- guili : tickle
- hi : surprise
- hop : jump
- hu : glottal stop followed by a shwa in place of an utterance
- hum : exclamation or indication that the speaker is pondering something
- kapoing : as in English
- mhm : approval
- miaou : sound that cats make
- meuh : sound that cows make
- ouh : exclamation (surprise, fear,...)
- ouhou : calling
- ouille : pain or exclamation (surprise, problem,...)
- oupla : when something or someone has fallen or almost fallen
- oup(s) : when something has fallen or almost fallen
- paf : slapping sound (or falling, hurting)
- pan : (gun) shot
- patatras : when something or someone falls down
- pic : when something stings or pricks something else
- plouf : when something or someone falls in the water
- poing : sound of something reverberating
- pouah : exclamation expressing disgust
- pouf : when something falls on a soft surface,
- poum : when something falls or appears suddenly
- slurp : drinking noise
- tchoutchou : sound of the train
- toc : knocking
- youp : accompanying a (little) jump
- youuu : accompanying a swinging or a jumping movement
- youhou : exclamation of joy
- waou : expressing surprise or admiration
- wouf : sound that dogs make
The Corpus from France
Anne is the first-born child (18-JUN-1995) of a couple living in Paris
who are originally from the south of France (Pyrénées region). Her
mother (Anne-Gaël, born SEP-1967) is a landscape architect, and her
father (Denis, born 30-DEC-1963) was temping in show business at the
time of the recordings. Anne’s little brother (Jonas) was born during
the study (born 8-JAN-1998).
The sessions in this corpus take place in different locations and
occasionally are spread over more than one day. Most are in the family
home in Paris but during the day, Anne often goes to a child-minder and
some sessions take place at her house. The child-minder also looks
after another little girl called Lore (born 6-MAR-1995). Some sessions
were recorded by the family themselves when they were away from Paris.
The only language Anne is exposed to is French.
Several nicknames marked @n are used for Anne, in particular Nounette
and Bibiche. The family also uses a word of its own, marked @f:
papouille (F), meaning a kiss, which would be câlin, baiser in standard
Some special attention was paid to the transcriptions of Anne's
pronunciation in the first few files since she was rather difficult to
understand. In many cases, information is given as to the way she
pronounced words, in case these had been misinterpreted and when her
utterances were felt to be unintelligible, a rough phonetic
transcription was given. However, this information has to be used with
care. Since pronunciation was not a focus of our study, only when a
note of the pronunciation is made can it be inferred that a word was not
pronounced in the target form. Even after some development had taken
place, the changes from the adult pronunciation were too numerous to
list. When no phonetic transcription or note appears the interpretation
was considered to be clear but nothing should be inferred as to the way
Anne pronounced the string in question.
Forms have not been marked as dialectal in this corpus because the
French spoken in France is usually taken as the standard against which
other varieties are compared. Where non-standard forms were used, they
are followed by $SF, with a rendering in standard French.
The corpus from Canada
Max is the second child of Martine (27-AUG-1965) and Dominique
(2-MAR-1965). He has an older brother called Pol (born 21-AUG-1992).
At the time of recording Dominique was a financial controller; his
highest diploma is a Baccalaureat (degree) in administration. Martine
worked in a shop and taught literacy part-time; her highest diploma is a
Baccalaureat (degree) in education.
Catherine, the interviewer, who was the initial transcriber for about
half of the corpus, comes from Acadia, where a slightly different
dialect is spoken. Where possible, dialectal traits were tagged (either
with @d or with [$D]). However, the first pass transcription for part
of the corpus was done by a speaker of Swiss French and the research
assistant who checked and coded the transcriptions is a native speaker
of Belgian French, not Canadian French; as a result, not all of the
dialectal traits may have been identified as such. Where the transcriber
was unsure of the status of a non-standard form, this may be merely
coded with an indication of the standard French form following it [SF:
], rather than [$D: *].
Max is not a particularly voluble child but his brother Pol is very
talkative. Efforts were made to tape on occasions when Pol was not in
the house since he tended to dominate the conversation. When present
Pol was encouraged to participate in activities with another adult. Max
is referred to by several nicknames, marked @n: Lou, Loulou, Tutu (only
used by Pol). Max sometimes refers to Catherine as Tine.
The following words, marked @d in the corpus belong to Canadian French.
An explanation of their use or corresponding form in standard form is given below,
as well as a translation in English.
Aside from lexical variation, there are numerous syntactic differences
between the Canadian and standard varieties of French, of which the
major ones seen in the corpus are as follows:
- d'abord used as a tag
- allo / allôassir asseoir
- autre(s) vous autres, eux autres 'others''you all', 'them all
- balloune (M) un ballon'baloon'
- bas (M) chaussettes'socks'
- bébite bébête 'beast' child word
- bec (M) un baiser 'a kiss'
- becquer embrasser 'to kiss'
- bedaine (F) un ventre 'a belly'
- bleuet myrtille 'blueberry'
- bon doué 'good at something'
- bord (M) côté 'side'
- boucane (F) fumée 'smoke'
- brisé(e) cassé(e) 'broken'
- capable (être capable) pouvoir, savoir, y arriver 'able'
- casse-tête (M) puzzle jigsaw'
- chanceux (être) avoir de la chance 'lucky'
- coco(s) oeuf(s) 'eggs'
- correct c’est correct ok,
- c'est bien, c'est comme il faut'right', 'ok'
- coucher dormir'go to sleep'
- coudonc exclamation
- croche crochu 'crooked'
- croquer mâcher'chew'
- d’ autre chose une autre chose, quelque chose d’autre 'something else'
- de même ainsi 'like this'
- débarbouillette torchon pour se nettoyer la bouche et les mains face cloth
- dépris décoincé 'released', 'freed'
- donc reinforces an imperative (not always marked @d in the files)
- échapper laisser tomber, laisser s’échapper
- elle cannot be used to designate an inanimate in standard French
- enregistreuse enregistreur 'tape/casette recorder'
- essayer (transitive) essayer (intransitive) 'try' 'have a go at'
- étampe cachet 'stamp'
- eux autres eux'them all'
- fin(e) gentil(le)
- flatter caresser 'stroke'
- foufounes fesses
- fun c'est le fun c'est amusant, c'est super 'it's great fun'
- goût (avoir le goût de) avoir envie de 'feel like'
- kapoigne onomatopée 'boing'
- licher lécher 'lick'
- maringouin (M) moustique
- misère (avoir de la _) (éprouver des) difficultés'be in/have trouble'
- mitaines ?
- les deux même not used as a noun in standard French
- pantoute du tout 'at all'
- pareil tout de même 'all the same'
- pattes jambes 'legs'
- peser appuyer 'press/push (down)'
- picot piqûre'injection
- 'piger pêcher 'dip into'
- poigner attraper 'catch'
- pointer montrer 'point at'
- (en) premier d'abord 'first'
- pris, être pris(e) être coincé(e), se coincer'to be/get caught in'
- rendu (être) (être) arrivé
- s’en (re)venir 'to get over'
- (ils) sontaient ils étaient
- suce tutte 'dummy', 'pacifier'
- tannant crevant, amusant'tiring', 'funny'
- tanné être tanné en avoir marre 'fed up'
- tantôt tout à l’heure 'in a while'
- vider verser 'to pour'
The names of certain means of transport which are masculine in standard French are feminine in Canadian French (bus,...).
Sometimes, this “feminisation” seems to be extended to other words of
this class with hélicoptère being referred to as elle. However due to
the velar characteristic of the ‘l’ in il, the preceding vowel sounds
more open than in standard French (so that elle may have been
transcribed when in fact the speaker meant il). But in a passage where
the participants are playing with toy cars, the singular (of
voiture/auto) is treated as feminine before the following utterance,
where the nouns are masculine but are used with a feminine-sounding
*CAT: [$SF: elles] sont toutes prêtes, [$SF: celles+là] [= cars] Là!
Here though, the use of ceux-là, is quite clear.
The quantifier tout is pronounced [tut] in Canadian French, even when it refers to masculine entities.
When the final ‘t’ was pronounced in a context in which it would not have been in standard French, the
sign @d was usually added to it, sometimes the pronunciation is mentioned explicitly but in most cases
it has simply been transcribed with the feminine form instead.
Fait is often pronounced [fEt], as if it was feminine, even though it is masculine
*CAT: il s' est fait@d [% pho: fEt] mal où ?
Aller variably takes the apparently third person form va in the first person singular which is vais in standard French:
*CAT: je [$D: vais] t' aider un peu .
In clefts, where the null operator has a first singular referent, the agreement is as in English clefts,
with a default third person form, while in standard French, full agreement is expected.
*CAT: c(e) est TU moi qui [$SF: ai] Crocro ?
The strong pronominals lui and elle, which in standard French would not be used deictically
if referring to inanimates, are sometimes used this way.
*MAX: pi # et (1)elle@d, c(e) est à moi .
*CAT: apporte LE, (1)lui@d !
Certain groups of postverbal clitics are ordered differently from in standard French
*CAT: envoie [$D: LE MOI] !
Markers of embedding
Complementiser que is often absent. Unlike in other varieties, its absence is not
phonologically conditioned. To find these cases it is necessary to search for $D.
*CAT: [$D: tu veux que] je t' aide?
*MOT: [$D: est ce que] c(e) est Papa ?
In other cases, que is used where it would be absent in standard French:
*CAT: dessine l' habit à Donald, toi, pour voir quelle couleur [$D: 0] il est !
In the Accadian variety spoken by Catherine, si ‘whether’ is often followed by que
*CAT: je (ne) sais pas [$D: si] ça marche comme ça .
Both direct and indirect interrogatives commonly have different forms from the standard.
In Yes-No questions, the marker TU may appear, as mentioned in section One.
*MOT: il y a TU [$D: autre chose] là+dedans ?
In standard French Wh+est-ce que is essentially limited to matrix contexts; this is not
true for Canadian varieties where it is standardly used in indirect questions and where
it can even appear inside a PP apparently replacing a simple wh-word (see Plunkett, 2000).
*CAT: [$D: c(e) est pour quoi faire] ?
*CAT: à [$D: quoi] est ce qu' il joue, pol ?
*CAT: c(e) est [$D: QUI qui] fait coin@o coin@o ?
*CAT: [$D: là où] c(e) est rouge, ça s' attache probablement .
*CAT: je pense sur son doigt qu' il montrait [$D: où] c(e) était sale .
When the embedded clause is copular, a wh-word can stay in situ in an indirect question
*MAX: mais je (ne) sais pas il est où .
*CAT: ah ben il [$D: a] disparu
*CAT: tu T(E) [$D: es] trouvé une petite chaise ?
*CAT: i(ls) ont [$SF: sont] tombé ?
The corpus from Belgium
This corpus focuses on Léa (born 17-MAY-1994), who is the first child of
Marc (born 7-APR-1963) and Dominique (born 12-SEP-1962). Léa has a
little brother, Luc (born 27-DEC-1995). Marc is a physiologist, and was
attending a course in osteopathy at the time of the project. Dominique
has a secondary school diploma in marketing. She stopped working when
she had Léa. During the project she was attending a course to become a
chiropodist. The only speaker who is not from Belgium is Parrain, Léa's
grandfather, who is French but has lived for many years in Belgium.
Léa is a very talkative child, with a powerful imagination. She
often invents games or little stories, thinking that everybody believes
what she says. Sometimes it is very difficult to make logical sense of
what she is saying, because she is making things up as she goes along.
From the 22nd session onwards, she got in the habit of calling her
grandparents Monsieur and Madame, and using the vous form with them,
possibly to emphasise the game-like character of the taped sessions.
All the recording sessions were conducted by the maternal grandmother
with the collaboration of either her husband or her daughter for the
filming. The sessions took place either at Léa’s home or at the
grandmother’s. Léa was free to choose what she wanted to do, but was
usually encouraged to play; often Léa's younger brother Luc was present
but in the earlier sessions he is not yet speaking and in the later ones
he rarely says anything.
Several nicknames marked @n are used for Léa: Blabla (this is also the
name of a character in a TV program for kids), Divine, Loulou, Louloute,
Minouche, Nouche, Nounou, Nounouche, Pimprinelle.
Many of the child invented forms marked @c in the corpus have no
clear meaning and are invented by Léa for fun. The meanings that can
be discerned are listed below.
The words below marked @d in the corpus are given in Belgian French,
followed by their counterpart in standard French, and a translation into
English. When an example is needed for the sake of clarity, it is given
in italics on the following line.
- audruche : autruche (deformed by dialectal pronounciation: word-final [t] + word-initial [r] (sonorant) is pronounced [dr], as in petite robe, petite rue)
- magique (une) : une manique (belgian French)
- pianer : faire du piano
- refaudrait : faudrait encore / de nouveau
- suitais : étais
- tiendre : tenir
- There are two family peculiar forms marked @f:
- bidou : bidon (tummy)
- loup (un) : une crotte de nez : 'a bogie'
Aside from this lexical variation, there are a number of syntactic peculiarities and fixed expressions that are found.
- abille dépêche-toi 'hurry up'
- baffe claque 'slap'
- bidon ventre 'belly'
- binette frimousse 'cute face'
- bouger enlever
- bouler envoyer (ailleurs), lancer 'throw'
- carabistouilles bêtises 'nonsense or white lies'
- chemisette maillot de corps 'vest'
- cent et un cent un
- chique (une) un bonbon 'a sweet'
- craque (une) une sottise, une blague 'joke, nonsense'
- d’abord tag similar to donc, alors
- dîner (le) le déjeuner 'lunch'
- donc (not used in the same contexts)
- drache forte pluie 'downpour'
- essuie (un) un torchon 'a tea towel''
- histoires choses
- lavette (une) un torchon 'cloth, used for cleaning'
- licher lécher 'to lick'
- mallette cartable 'briefcase or satchel'
- manique (une) torchon ou poignée 'cloth', 'dishcloth', 'face cloth'
- mémère comère 'gossip'
- palette petite pelle 'shovel'
- paraît (not used as a tag in this way)
- pet / pette un pet, un derrière 'backside'
- plasticine pâte à modeler 'placticine'
- quatre heures (le) le goûter 'tea', 'snack for kids”
- ramassette pelle à poussières 'dustpan'
- rattaquer recommencer 'give it another go'
- rou(m)doudoum hop, voilà
- s’il te plait voici 'here you are”
- 's’il vous plait s’il te plaît 'please', or 'here you are',
- souper (le) dîner 'dinner'
- tantôt tout à l’heure 'earlier' or 'in a moment',
- tchinisse un rien du tout, 'little bit of fluff'
- tenture(s) rideau(x)'curtain(s)'tévé télé(vision) 'TV'
- tiens donc! alors! (exclamation)
- toi! (not used as a tag in this way)
- torchon serpillère 'dish cloth', 'floor cloth'
A number of phrases un (petit) peu, (pour) une fois, (pour) voir seem to
have a special intensifying use after verbs in the imperative in this
variety. They can occur in combination with each other.
*MAM: raconte MOI un petit peu@d pour une fois !
*MAM: essaie un peu@d celui+là pour voir !
*MAM: va un peu@d voir !
*PAR: aha attends voir que je regarde un petit peu !
*PAR: [$D: mets LES (pour) qu' on voie de quoi tu as l' air] !
A number of verbs which take infinitival complements with à or with a
bare infinitival may have their complement introduced by de in Belgian
*MAM: Léa, elle [$D: aime bien courir] aussi .
*LEA: mais moi, j(e) [$D: aime mieux te voir], Mamy .
*MAM: t(u) (n') [$D: aimes pas nettoyer] ?
*MAM: bon si tu [$D: continuais à laver] ta poupée, maintenant
*MAM: [$D: continue à faire] ce que tu faisais Là !
Direct quotation is often introduced by the finite complementiser que.
*LEA: non elle (n') est plus fatiguée, [$D: elle a dit] .
Modals and auxiliaries
Causative faire is usually replaced by mettre.
*MOT: tu LA [$D: fais sécher] où ?
*MOT: tourne le bouton pour [$D: faire cuire] les oeufs !
Pouvoir to indicate ability is usually replaced by savoir
*LEA: c(e) est QUI qui [$D: peux] ME (LE) [= the balloon] gonfler ?
*LEA: tu [$D: peux] avancer un peu ta chaise ? [= so she can go past]
Pouvoir has a special use in the expression ne pouvoir mal (de)
*LEA: [$D: je ne risque rien] ?
*MOT: en manger, elle ne [$D: risque pas] .
Avoir has a special use in the expressions avoir facile, avoir difficile, avoir bon
*MAM: tu [$D: y arriveras mieux] .
*MAM: et [$D: on est bien], tous ensemble après .
*MAM: [$D: tu aimes bien ... dire ] qu' il ne faut pas dire ouais ["] .
Faire has a special use in which it is used as an auxiliary followed by a past participle
*MAM: ah voilà ce [$D: qu' il est écrit] .
The study was funded by an Economic and Social Research Council grant to
Bernadette Plunkett, #R000221972.