MacBates2 Corpus


Brian MacWhinney
Department of Psychology
Carnegie Mellon University

website

Elizabeth Bates (1947-2003)
Department of Psychology
University of California San Diego

website

Participants: 76 3-year olds, 53 6-year olds, 44 10-year olds, 103 adults
Type of Study: film description
Location: USA, Hungary
Media type: no longer available
DOI: doi:10.21415/T5H03V

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Citation information

MacWhinney, B., & Bates, E. (1978). Sentential devices for conveying givenness and newness: A cross-cultural developmental study. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 539–558.

The film stimuli for this study can be found here.

Project Description

This directory contains the Hungarian and English data from the film description study that Brian MacWhinney and Elizabeth Bates conducted during 1980 to 1982. The results of this work were never published in full. The Italian data from the study are not included. There were two orderings of the film — order A and order B. There was also a single version of a cartoon film. Participants came from four age groups: 3, 6, 10, and adult. The file names give the age of the participant, which version of the film they saw, and their participant number.

1.1 Script for Pixolation Film

* = line for coding summary data
Scene  Seg    Script A  Script B
1a1 Hippo turns. (zoom and cut)Kangaroo turns. (zoom and cut)
1a2*Hippo, ladder, and lock on stage.Kangaroo, orange, and pencil on stage.
1a3Hippo moves.Orange moves.
1a4Hippo hits ladder.Orange hits kangaroo.
1a5Ladder moves.Kangaroo moves.
1a6Ladder hits lock.Kangaroo hits pencil.
1a7Lock moves.Pencil moves.
1b1Lion turns.(zoom and cut)same as A
1b2*Lion, spool, and ball on stage.same as A
1b3Lion moves.same as A
1b4Lion hits spool.same as A
1b5Spool moves.same as A
1b6Spool hits ball.same as A
1b7Ball moves.same as A
1c1Kangaroo turns. (zoom and cut)Hippo turns.(zoom and cut)
1c2*Kangaroo, orange, pencil on stage.Hippo, ladder, and lock on stage.
1c3Orange moves.Hippo moves.
1c4Orange hits kangaroo.Hippo hits ladder.
1c5Kangaroo moves.Ladder moves.
1c6Kangaroo hits pencil.Ladder hits lock.
1c7Pencil moves.Lock moves.
2a1*Bottle, goat, and lock on stage.Block, pipe, and dog on stage.
2a2Bottle moves.Block moves.
2a3Bottle hits goat.Block hits pipe.
2a4Goat moves.Pipe moves.
2a5Goat hits lock.Pipe hits dog.
2a6Lock moves.Dog moves.
2b1*Block, pipe, and dog on stage.Bottle, goat and lock on stage.
2b2Block moves.Bottle moves.
2b3Block hits pipe.Bottle hits goat.
2b4Pipe moves.Goat moves.
2b5Pipe hits dog.Goat hits lock.
2b6Dog moves.Lock moves.
2c1*Giraffe, stool, and tree on stage.same as A
2c2Giraffe moves.same as A
2c3Giraffe hits stool.same as A
2c4Stool moves.same as A
2c5Stool hits tree.same as A
2c6Tree moves.same as A
3a1*Cow, basket, and table on stage.Chair, fish, and TV on stage.
3a2Cow moves.Chair moves.
3a3Cow hits basket.Chair hits fish
3a4Basket moves.Fish moves.
3a5Cow moves.Chair moves.
3a6Cow hits (pushes) table.Chair hits TV.
3a7Table moves.TV moves.
3b1*Chair, fish, and TV on stage.Flowerpot, ball, and pig on stage.
3b2Chair moves.Flowerpot moves.
3b3Chair hits fish.Flowerpot hits ball.
3b4Fish moves.Ball moves.
3b5Chair moves.Flowerpot moves.
3b6Chair hits TV.Flowerpot hits pig.
3b7TV moves.Pig moves.
3c1*Flowerpot, ball, pig on stage.Cow, basket, and table on stage.
3c2Flowerpot moves.Cow moves.
3c3Flowerpot hits ball.Cow hits basket.
3c4Ball moves.Basket moves.
3c5Flowerpot moves.Cow moves.
3c6Flowerpot hits pig.Cow hits table.
3c7Pig moves.Table moves.
4a1Cylinder on stage.scene only appears in A
4a2Ball moves.
4a3Ball hits cylinder.
4a4Cylinder falls.
4b1Cylinder on stage.same as A
4b2Ball moves.
4b3Ball hits cylinder.
4b4(Cylinder falls.)
4c1Cylinder on stage.same as A
4b2Ball enters.
4b3Ball misses cylinder.
4b4Cylinder doesn’t fall.
4b5Ball exits.
4d1(Ball enters.)same as A
4d2(Ball hits cylinder.)
4d3(Cylinder falls.)
4d4Cylinder lying down.
4d5Ball exits.
4e1(Ball misses cylinder.)same as A
4e2(Cylinder doesn’t fall.)
4e3Cylinder stands.
4e4Ball moves.
51*Man, stick, and ball on stage.same as A
52Man looks at stick and ball.
53Ball moves.
54Ball hits stick.
55Stick falls over.
56Man looks (during action).
7a1*Gorilla and camel on stage.Camel and elephant on stage.
7a2Gorilla chases camel. (cut)Camel chases elephant. (cut)
7b1*Gorilla and stag on stage.Deer and elephant on stage.
7b2Gorilla chases stag. (cut)Deer chases elephant. (cut)
7c1*Gorilla and elephant on stage.Gorilla and elephant on stage.
7c2Gorilla chases elephant.Gorilla chases elephant.
8a1*Apple and stool on stage.Apple and stool on stage.
8a2Apple chases stool. (cut)Apple chases stool. (cut)
8b1*Apple and dog on stage.Stool and dog on stage.
8b2Apple chases dog.Stool chases dog.
8c1*Cow and zebra on stage.Cow and zebra on stage.
8c2Cow chases zebra. (cut)Cow chases zebra. (cut)
8d1*Zebra and seal on stage.Cow and seal on stage.
8d2Zebra chases seal.Cow chases seal.
8e1*Camel and giraffe on stage.Camel and giraffe on stage.
8e2Camel chases giraffe. (cut)Camel chases giraffe. (cut)
8f1*Bottle and camel on stage.Bottle and giraffe on stage.
8f2Bottle chases camel.Bottle chases giraffe.
8g1*Chair and table on stage.Chair and table on stage.
8g2Chair chases table. (cut)Chair chases table. (cut)
8h1*Hippo and chair on stage.Hippo and table on stage.
8h2Hippo chases chair.Hippo chases table.
8i1*Cow and apple on stage.Cow and apple on stage.
8i2Apple chases cow.Cow chases apple.
9a1(Big) orange on plate.(Big) orange on plate.
9a2(Big) orange moves. (cut)(Big) orange moves. (cut)
9b1(Big) oranges on stage.Big and small orange on stage.
9b2One (big) orange moves.(Big) orange moves.
9b3(Big) orange hits (big) orange.(Big) orange hits (small) orange.
9b4(Big) orange moves.(Small) orange moves.
9b5(Big) orange stays. (cut)(Big) orange stays. (cut)
9c1(Big) orange on plate.(Big)orange on plate.
10a1Man and woman face each other.Man and woman face each other.
10a2Man has ball.Woman has ball.
10a3Man walks to woman.Man walks to woman.
10a4Man hands woman a ball.Man grabs ball from woman.
10b11Woman sits down. (cut)Woman sits down. (cut)
10b21Woman and man stand facing. (cut)Woman sitting; man facing. (cut)
10b22Woman moves to man (cut).Man moves to woman. (cut)
10b31Camera behind woman.Camera behind man.
10b32Woman grabs ball.Man gives ball to woman.
10c11Woman skips. (cut)scene omitted
10c21Woman and man stand facing.scene omitted
10c22Woman moves to man.scene omitted
10c31Camera behind woman.scene omitted
10c32Woman gives ball to man.scene omitted
10d11Woman reads a book. (cut)Woman reads a book. (cut)
10d21Woman stands alone.Woman stands alone (cut).
10d22Camera zooms in.omitted
10d23Woman walks, raises hand, (cut)omitted
10d31Man and woman standing close.same as A
10d32Man drops orange in her hand.same as A
11a1Man 1 and man 2 standing.same as A
11a2Man 1 paints himself.Man 2 bounces a ball.
11a3Man 2 bounces a ball.Man 1 paints himself.
11a4Man 1 climbs a ladder.same as A
11b1Woman 1 and 2 are standing.same as A
11b2Woman 1 turns around.Woman 2 bounces a ball.
11b3Woman 2 bounces a ball.Woman 1 turns around.
11b4Woman 1 sits down.same as A
12a1Tree pulls active walrus.Tree chases panther.
12b1Tree circles alligator.Tree pulls camel. (cut)
12c1Tree pushes active penguin.Tree circles alligator.
12d1Tree chases panther.Tree pushes sheep.
12e1Tree falls on bear.Tree pulls active walrus. (cut)
12f1Tree pushes neutral sheep.Tree falls on bear.
12g1Tree hits gorilla.Tree pushes active penguin.
12h1Tree pulls neutral camel.Tree hits gorilla.
12i1Buffalo pushes active tree.Buffalo pushes passive tree.
12j1Buffalo pushes neutral tree.Buffalo pushes active tree.
13a1*(Lemon, apple, orange on stage.)same as A
13a2Lemon moves.
13a3Lemon hits apple.
13a4Apple moves.
13a5Apple hits orange.
13a6Orange moves.
13b1*(Lemon, apple, orange on stage.)same as A
13b2Lemon moves.
13b3Apple and orange on stage.
13b4Lemon moves.
13b5Lemon hits apple.
13b6Apple moves.
13b7Apple hits orange.
13b8Orange moves.
13c1*Apple and orange on stage.same as A
13c2Lemon moves.
13c3Lemon hits apple.
13c4Apple moves.
13c5Apple hits orange.
13c6Orange moves.
13d1*Apple and orange on stage.same as A
13d2Lemon moves.
13d3Orange, lemon, apple on stage.
13d4Lemon moves.
13d5Lemon hits apple.
13d6Apple moves.
13d7Apple hits orange.
13d8Orange moves.
13e1*Lemon, apple, orange on stage.same as A
13e2Lemon moves.
13e3Lemon hits apple.
13e4Apple moves.
13e5Apple hits orange.
13e6Orange moves.

Film A order was 8a–d, 11a, 8e–f, 13c, 8g–h, 10a, 8i, 4a-e, 10c, 12, 11b, 2, 13e, 7, 13b, 1, 10d, 9, 13d, 5, 10b, 3, 13a.

Film B order was 8a–d, 13a, 8e–f, 11b, 8g–h, 4b–e, 8i, 10a, 3, 13e, 10b, 5, 13c, 10d, 9, 1, 13d, 7, 13b, 2, 11a, 12.

1.2 Reasons for Stimuli

  1. The treatment of the orange as an animate should be strongest in Film A where focus is achieved cinematographically. Focus on the kangaroo should induce more backgrounding of the hitting by the orange.
  2. It is interesting to compare “bottle” with “orange” in (1) and to compare across versions for effects of the previous priming scene. Perhaps “dog” will be passivized?
  3. Here we might expect conjunctions instead of relatives and fewer passives than in (1) and (2). Do children have a hard time “letting go” of the fish when it is already the perspective?
  4. These should ellicit forms such as “will hit,” “will miss,” “hit,” and “missed.”
  5. Backgrounding of “man,” cause inferred in (3), multiple setting in ASL.
  6. Omitted.
  7. This should ellicit devices that mark anaphoric givenness and singularity of newness.
  8. These should be marked by coordination in compound presentation, givenness of distant items, with possible referent confusion.
  9. Set operation, confusability.
  10. 10a segment a should ellicit “gives”, whereas segment b should ellicit less “gives” than 10b. Segments a, c, and d should ellicit “gets.” 10b segment a should ellicit “takes” and “grabs.” In segment b “gives” should be stronger than in 10a. Segments a and d should ellicit “gets.”
  11. Relative clauses, and so forth.
  12. Perspective, givenness.
  13. Stage setting, ASL marking, shifts.

1.3 Devices Used Across Segments

  1. Scene contrast: Contrast with a whole previous scene. Examples: in this scene, however; and now in this scene. Code on each segment of the entire scene.
  2. Scene parallelism: Parallel to a previous scene. Examples: exact same thing as before, but with a goat; the same black ball hit the orange stick again. Code on each segment of the entire scene.
  3. Movie scene specification: May apply to either a segment or a whole scene. Code on segment on which occurs. Examples: in this episode, scene, shot, in the picture, in this one, here in the second one.
  4. Global description: Example: fruit rolling around.

1.4 Devices Used in Particular Segments

  1. Segment ellipsis: No material in the segment at all.
  2. Interactionals. Examples: OK, allright, well, um, and so forth. Code on segment if occurs anywhere within the segment.
  3. Evidentials: References to the perceiver. Examples: we see that, it appears, we can see, you see a, and so forth.
  4. Location specification: Physical location within the “room” or frame depicted. Examples: in the room, on the table, it left the screen, off stage, came on stage, and so forth. Do not code plain off, in, or away as in then the cow went in/off/away. Although the latter may imply location, they are not very specific and are already captured as the main function of the directional adverb category. Also, do not code the presentative (e.g., there is a dog), because it may imply existence rather than location; however, do code utterances such as the dog was there, because these are locative and not captured by any other category. Note that this category should not be confused with pansegmental #3, which refers to the contents of a segment or scene as a whole. For instance, in this scene, a dog chased a cow would be coded #3 pan-segmental, because elements of the scene are not assigned locations.
  5. Segment parallelism: Like #2 pansegmental, but referring only to segment rather than scene similarity. The referents involved will determine which coding is applicable. Examples: in both of these, the same as, the exact same thing, in the same sequence. More specifically, an example would be the hippo hit the ladder and then did the same to a lock — the referents being parallel within multiple segments of a single scene. Code parallelism on the latter segment (e.g., hippo hit lock).
  6. Segment contrast: Analogous to #1 of pansegmental, but referring to segment rather than scene contrast. The referents involved will determine which coding is applicable. Examples: here, however, in this case, in turn, and now. (The very common phrase and then has been double-coded as #7 and #8. Although such a combination might conceivably be considered a method of segment contrast, it was not so regarded here. Instead it was considered to be primarily a mode of coordination and ordering.)
  7. Segment order: Examples: then, first, and so forth. May be double-coded #3 pan-segmental, but only when order also suggests a movie scene, e.g., in the first one/in the second scene. In these cases a noun or pronoun must indicate reference to the scene.
  8. Coordination: Example: and. Code when occurs within a segment (e.g., a cow and an apple were there. An exception would be for adjectival coordinations because they are script-external (e.g., a brown and white cow hit the ladder. When coordination occurs between segments code on the following segment. In the case of a cow ran and it hit an apple, the cow hit apple segment would be coded as #8).
  9. Cotemporality: Examples: while, during.
  10. Restrictive relativization relevant to script: Relativizations that must discriminate among two similar scripted objects. Example: the man who painted his face when one man did and one man did not.
  11. Nonrestrictive relativization relevant to script: Example: the apple hit the lock which went off stage. Code under the segment lock moves. Causatives such as the apple hit the lock which made the lock go off stage were not coded here because the relativizer“which” refers to the contents of the entire previous phrase, rather than a single noun. These causatives are captured by #9 of Verbal Specification.
  12. Segment negation: Examples: it didn't hit the cylinder; you don’t see if it falls or not. Do not code nominal negation here.
  13. Backward conflator: Transitive action conflating previous intransitive motion. Example: the apple rolled into the orange implies previous movement of the apple. Code the segment apple hits orange as a backward conflator even if the previous segment is not ellipsed. Other likely backward conflators are runs into and bumps (into).
  14. Backward conflatee: Segment ellipsed as indicated in #13. Also code as #1 (ellipsed). Do not code as a conflatee unless actually ellipsed.
  15. Forward conflator: A transitive that conflates a following intransitive motion. Example: the goat knocked over the bottle on the segment goat hits bottle implies movement in the following bottle moves segment. Other likely forward conflators include pushed over, push, and nudge. Code as a conflator even if the following segment is not ellipsed. For some speakers, bump seems to have the potential to be considered as both a backward and forward conflator. It was coded only as a backward conflator because it necessarily implies some movement on the part of the one who bumps. It may or may not imply a substantial degree of movement (although it may tend to imply recoil or surprise) on the part of the bumpee. Other somewhat ambiguous cases include the goat knocked into the bottle, the apple pushed into the orange. The unusual pronouns may tend to move these in the direction of backward conflation: they were nonetheless treated as forward conflators, that is, as if they were more typical usages of these verbs.
  16. Forward conflatee: Segment actually ellipsed by #15. Code only if ellipsed and double code for ellipsis (#1).
  17. Double forward conflation: Examples: the giraffe pushes the chair into the lock. Three segments are involved: “giraffe hits chair”, ”chair moves”, “chair hits lock”. Code #17 on “chair hits lock.” Code #15 and #16/#1 on “giraffe hits chair” and “chair moves,” respectively.
  18. Error: The purpose of this code is to identify those segments that seem to be difficult to perceive. Examples: Role errors (example, the dog pushes the cow when the cow has pushed the dog) and errors that make it impossible to tell what roles are assigned. Also apply this codeto major nominal errors that are not role errors (example, the dog pushes the cow when there is no dog in the scene, and a giraffe has pushed the cow). Do not use this code for minor nominal errors with no impact (e.g., calling a horse a donkey). Also use this code for errors requiring prompting (indicated on transcripts as empty parentheses).
  19. Self-correction: Retraced false starts (not hesitations, interactionals, or simple repeats). Use the corrected production for all other coding.
  20. Out of script order: Whole segments are out of order. This is indicated in the transcripts by segment numbers that are out of sequence.

1.5 Nominal Specification Devices

  1. Ellipsis: Any reference to the nominal (via noun, pronoun, and so forth) is missing. This is also used when the nominal is incorrect and additional coding would be misleading.
  2. Definite article: the.
  3. Indefinite article: a, an.
  4. Definite pronoun: he, she, it, they, we, this, that, those (Note that the use of relative pronouns is indicated by #13, #14, or #15.)
  5. Indefinite pronoun: one, some, something, another.
  6. Deictic adjective: that dog, this cow.
  7. Indefinite adjective: another animal, some fruit, one cow, the other cow, all the objects.
  8. Deverbal adjective: the moving goat, the fallen cylinder. Such adjectives lead to the ellipsis of a scripted segment. For example, the moving goat hit the bottle ellipses the segment “the goat moves.”
  9. Negated nominal: nobody, none, nothing, none of the, not the ball etc.
  10. Possessive adjective: his, its.
  11. Other Adjective: big, fat.
  12. Prepositional phrase used to modify scripted noun. Example: with the stripe. Sometimes, within the prepositional phrase, possessives or other adjectives appear that refer indirectly to the scripted noun or its parts (e.g., the hippopotamus with his big mouth). These are given the codings appropriate to their respective types of adjective (#10 for the possessive and #11 for other adjectives) in addition to the preposition code, because they refer indirectly or in part to the scripted noun. Prepositional phrases used as adverbs are not coded here. For example, in pushed with his nose the prepositional phrase is treated as an adverb and thus does not receive either a #10 coding for his or a #12 coding.
  13. Nominal specified by restrictive relative clause.
  14. Nominal specified by nonrestrictive relative clause: in, the apple was hit by a lock which went off stage, the lock is nonrestrictively specified by the relative which went off stage. The relative is coded on the segment “lock moves.” Note: Do not code “lock” as ellipsed because it is substituted for by the relative pronoun in this segment.
  15. Nominal specified by script-external relative clause or script-external adverbial: the goat that had the red collar hit the table; there is an orange sitting on the plate. (In the latter example, where the script has “the orange” simply “on stage,” then the specification of it as “sitting” is taken as a script-external adverbial that is auxiliary to the scripted presentative. Where the script actually has the stative scripted, as in “cylinder lying down,” the coding is #23 rather than #15. Unfortunately, there is some inconsistency in the scripting. In the cylinder sequences, the distinction between “on stage” and “lying down” or “standing up” does not seem to be entirely principled. That is, it does not seem to relate to whether the object is to undergo a change of state or to any other discernable principle. Unfortunately, such differences in the script must make other differences in the coding, as noted below. Since the decision had been made not to alter the script, the only reasonable response was to acknowledge it in a consistent manner, which has been done.) When #15 is coded for unscripted relative clauses, also indicate via #13 or #14 whether the relative is restrictive or nonrestrictive. Do not code at the level of segmental device.
  16. Stress: (Note that this device is not yet marked on the transcripts and thus cannot be coded.)
  17. Noun phrase coordination: the lemon and the orange. Mark each noun coordinated, for example, code both the lemon and the orange with a #17.
  18. Left dislocation: Initialization in clause with a pronoun copy in standard position, as in the table, it hit the lock.
  19. Preverbal positioning: Immediately preceding the scripted noun: not separated by another noun. In “the dog chased the stool,” the dog is obviously the preverbal nominal element. In we saw the dog chasing the stool, the dog is still considered to be preverbal because “chase” is the scripted verb. There are a few cases in which a noun is coded as immediately preverbal although it may not be in the strictest sense. For instance, in the spool of thread bumped the lock, “spool” is the scripted noun. Although spool does not immediately precede the verb, spool of thread functionally refers to the same entity. Indeed, thread alone may often be used to make the same reference. In the few cases like this, the presence of the prepositional modifier did not seem to justify disqualifying its noun as preverbal. A final note: again, there is some confusion in the sequences scripted “on stage.” The coding of there is a cylinder standing up therefore depends on whether the script reads “cylinder on stage” or “cylinder standing up.” In the former, the scripted verb is taken to be the presentative, which cylinder follows postverbally. In the latter the scripted verb is taken to be the stative, which cylinder precedes. (Responses vary from a cylinder is there to there is a cylinder to a cylinder is standing there to there is a cylinder standing there. Perhaps one should rethink the position of the “on stage” vs. its stative alternatives in the script, although this was not originally seen as viable.)
  20. Postverbal positioning: Immediately following the scripted verb; not separated by another noun. In the dog chased the stool, the stool is the postverbal nominal element. In simple, scripted presentatives (e.g., there was/we had an orange, a lemon, and an apple) in the scripted “lemon, apple, orange on stage”), code the noun that follows the presentative verb as immediately postverbal. (Here that would be the orange.) In the case of a presentative that is not scripted and an adverbial that is, (e.g., there is a dog chasing a cow for the scripted “dog chases cow,” dog is considered to be immediately preverbal vis-a-vis the scripted verb and cow is considered to be immediately postverbal.
  21. Placement in a by-clause: Indexes the use of the passive. Mark only the noun that actually occurs in the clause, (e.g., in the dog was chased by the stool mark only the stool.)
  22. Presentative nominal: Any presentative, whether scripted or not. Examples: There’s a dog, We had a dog, They showed an apple chasing an orange.
  23. Nominal specified by a scripted adverbial: There’s a dog chasing a cow: We see a kangaroo turn.

1.6 Verb Specification Devices

  1. Ellipsis: Include all types of gapping as well as complete ellipsis of scripted verb. Examples: NP + NP VP (the dog and ball ran); VP NP + NP (there was an orange and an apple); presentative without any form of the scripted verb.
  2. Presentative: Any form that introduces a referent. Examples: there is, they show, we have. Most frequently these will appear when there is a new “on stage” element. When a presentative is not scripted in this way but used to introduce scripted action, code on the scripted action verb, in addition to other applicable codings (e.g., in we see an apple chasing a stool,, code a presentative on chasing.
  3. Deleted presentative: A sentence in which the main verb is missing. Example: an apple which gets hit by a dog (where there is should occur). Only coded on the first segment of each coordinated sequence, such as apple moves for an apple running and hitting a stool.) Where sequences are not coordinated with and, each is coded for a deleted presentative. Example: Code #3 on both apple hits stool and apple hits cow for a noncoordinated response such as Apple hitting stool. Apple hitting cow.
  4. Stative: Examples: an orange is sitting on a plate, standing, resting. Code even when statives are not specifically scripted.
  5. Directional adverb: after, around, on, into.
  6. Exit directional: A subset of directionals which indicate something has left. Even though a subset, do not double-code a #5. In the interests of objectivity and uniformity, code all instances of the following: off, away, off stage. The “exit” component of these may be vague, because off may mean “off the plate” or “off stage” and away may simply mean “away from another animal or object.” All “exists”, including those simply relative to another object or position should be coded.
  7. Manner adverb: Put any nondirectional adverbs in this category. Examples: slowly, in a circle, twisting, sort of, just etc. However, adverbs of time or order such as then were not included, because they already make up pansegmental category #7.
  8. Causative replacing action: Examples: the lemon made the apple roll into the orange.
  9. Causative coded on resultant: Examples: the orange hit the lemon, making it roll into the apple; the orange hit the kangaroo, which made it hit the pencil. Code causative on the segment with “roll into” or “hit,” respectively, because the causative does not replace the action as in #8 .
  10. First member(s) of coordinate verb phrase: All verbs in script (in different segments). To be assigned the #10/11 coding an explicit and must occur at the end of the sequence. Examples: “moved” in moved and hit; both “turned” and “moved” in the hippo turned, moved over, and hit the ladder.
  11. Last member of coordinate verb phrase: All verbs must be in the script (in different segments); an explicit and must occur at the end of the sequence. Examples: “hit” in moved and hit.
  12. Double transitive: Two transitive verbs in one segment where script has only one verb. Example: hit it and knocked it over.
  13. Double coding of motion: Two intransitive verbs where script has only one. Example: the ball rolls and then it goes and hits. This is coded on “hits”.
  14. Passive.
  15. Reciprocal: Example: touched each other.
  16. Reflexive: Examples: himself, herself, themselves. Code only for scripted verbs. Some scripted verbs cannot be coded according to this scheme, (e.g., if the scripted verb occurs as an adverbial, in the infinitive).
  17. Past imperfect: Examples: was chasing, was being chased by, there was.
  18. Past perfect: Examples: chased, was chased by, we saw.
  19. Present imperfect: Examples: is chasing, is being chased by, there is, we have.
  20. Present perfect: Examples: chases, is chased by. In segments like “apple moves,” a description such as goes rolling was classified as present perfect (for goes as an indicator of movement) plus an adverb indicating the manner of movement (rolling).
  21. Retrospective: Example: has chased.
  22. Inchoative: Example: is about to.
  23. Inceptive: Examples: starts to, started to. (Also code for tense, when possible.) Examples: started spinning would be coded as the imperfect past as well as inceptive. There is no tense coding for the infinitive plus inceptive, as in started to spin.
  24. Generalized verb: Verb that does not specify who does what. Example: the orange and the apple chased around.
  25. Adverbial: Scripted verb is in adverbial form. Example: “chasing” in there was an apple chasing a stool.
  26. Continuation: Emphasizes ongoing aspect of activity. Example: keeps rolling, continues to move.

1.7 Segmental
1. Is there a preceding segment?PSEG
2. Is there a following segment?FSEG
3. Is the preceding segment dynamic (i.e. movement)?PDYN
4. Is the following segment dynamic?FDYN
5. Is the preceding segment transitive?PTRAN
6. Is the following segment transitive?FTRAN
7. Is there a preceding cut?PCUT
8. Is there a following cut?FCUT
9. Is there an observer present?OBS
10. Is there an inferred action (i.e. not actually seen)?INF
11. Does the previous scene have parallel structure?PAR

1.8 Nominal
1. Is the word a noun or a pronoun?N
2. Is it exophorically given (achieved by leaving projector on)?EXO
3. Is it anaphorically given (achieved by presence in current scene)?ANA
4. Was it nominated as topic (in constrained production task)?NOM
5. Is it the only element that is given or only that is new?SANA
6. Is the referent confusable?CONF
7. Is the element cinematographically salient?CSAL
8. Was it previously salient (in current scene)?PSAL
9. Is it potent?POT
10. Is it animate?ANI
11. Is it human?HUM
12. Singularity of animacy?SANI
13. Is it currently the perspective (based on verb markedness)?CPER
14. Was it previously a perspective?PPER
15. Is it moving?MOV
16. Singularity of motion?SMOV
17. Was it the first mover?FMOV
18. Was it used as reference location?LOC
19. Was there an earlier segment within this scene with same verb?PARS
20. Did the item appear in the same role in an earlier segment?SAME
21. Different animacy in the parallel segment in the previous scene?ADIF

1.9 Verbal
1. Action?ACT
2. Transitive?TRAN
3. Static?STAT
4. Collision?COL
5. Percussive?PERC
6. Result of previous action?RES
7. Negation of expectation?NEG

1.10 Participant-Generated
1. Was the first segment ellipsed?FELL
2. Was the last segment ellipsed?LELL
3. Was the previous segment ellipsed?PELL
4. Was the following segment ellipsed?FSELL
5. Was the item previously mentioned?PMEN
6. Was there a preceding presentative?PPRE

1.11 Script of Cartoon

  1. Woodpecker is pecking in a tree.
  2. Dog runs in from off stage and runs up to the tree.
  3. Bird stops pecking and dog barks at bird.
  4. Bird looks at dog.
  5. Bird pecks at tree again (pecks until has almost pecked through tree branch).
  6. Bird stops pecking and tree top falls to the ground.
  7. Dog and bird run off stage.
  8. Tree top follows (chases) dog and bird.
  9. Bird and dog and tree top come back on stage and tree top chases dog which chases bird.
  10. Bear walks into cave.
  11. Bird and dog go into cave.
  12. Bird and dog come out of cave then bear follows (chases) them.
  13. Bird and dog run up an evergreen tree together.
  14. Tree runs away with bird and dog in it.
  15. Bear picks up a stick.
  16. Bear walks along and encounters a banana tree and hits the tree with the stick.
  17. Banana falls on bear.
  18. Bear picks up banana and eats it.
  19. Bear walks along and encounters an apple tree, picks up another (duplicate) stick and hits the tree.
  20. An apple falls on the bear.
  21. Bear drops stick and then picks up the apple and eats it.
  22. Bear picks up the same stick and walks to a banana tree and hits the tree with the stick. (Note: the banana tree now has a monkey in it.)
  23. Monkey falls on bear.
  24. Monkey gets up and growls at bear.
  25. Monkey grabs stick from bear.
  26. Bear points at banana tree.
  27. Monkey hits banana tree with stick.
  28. Bananas fall on bear and monkey.
  29. Bear and monkey shake hands and then they each pick up a banana and eat it.